This study empirically examined the effects of human-induced climate change on human development in Nigeria using annual time series data spanning from 1980 to 2014. The theoretical background and evaluation of this study was from the Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) theory of climate change and Amartya Sen’s capabilities approach to human development. Stationarity tests were conducted. The study established long run relationships among variables; and Error Correction Models (ECMs) were specified. The data used for the study were Carbon emissions from different sectors of the economy, Methane emission, Nitrous emission and Human Development Index (HDI); these were sourced from World Development Indicators (WDI), 2015 and UNDP’s Human Development Report 2014. It was discovered from the study that excessive emissions of greenhouse gases from all sectors of the economy, in the environment, have had debilitating effects on the health, education and living standards of Nigerians. Thus, it was concluded that many activities of people living in Nigeria have really contributed to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the environment. Thus, it was recommended that Mitigation procedures should be put in place by the government at all levels to reduce to the barest minimum the effects of greenhouse gas emissions in the environment. This can be possible through proper legislative framework to regulate and control emissions in the country; there is need for strategic planning by the government to enhance adaptive capacity to face both present and future human-induced climate change effects, especially in areas that are vulnerable; and awareness should be created to enable people living in the country know that some of their activities are harmful to the environment; and that alternative measures that are environmental friendly should be considered.